Indonesia is an archipelago country that stretched from Sabang at the top of Sumatra Island to Merauke at the bottom of Papua across the equator for more than 5,000 kilometres from east to west and more than 2,000 kilometres from north to south, or from 6’ north to 11’ south latitude, and from 95’ to 141’ east longitude. It lies on a crossroads between two oceans, the Pacific and the Indian, and bridges two continents, Asia and Australia.
Inter census Population Survey (SUPAS) 2005 reveals total population were 218,868,791 with population density 117.6 people per sq km. The highest population density province was DKI Jakarta (11,968.8 people per sq km) meanwhile provinces in Kalimantan, Maluku and Papua had lowest density (5.9 people per sq km).
In 1992 the U5MR stood at 97 deaths per 1,000 live births, but by 1994 this figure had declined to 81 deaths per 1,000 live births. Between 2002 and 2003 the figure dropped further to 46 and by 2007 had declined to 44 deaths per 1,000 live births (IDHS 2007). There are three main causes of infant mortality that remain a serious challenge. They are acute respiratory infection (pneumonia), perinatal complications and diarrhoea. A combination of these three accounts for a 75 percent share of infant deaths. The main causes of death among children under five are almost identical: respiratory disease (pneumonia), diarrhoea, neurological diseases (including meningitis and encephalitis) and typhoid. Protecting and providing healthcare services to the poor and vulnerable groups in rural and remote areas, as well as in pockets of poverty in urban areas will be essential in reducing CMR. In addition to this, cooperation between the central and regional governments as well as cross-sectoral cooperation to improve the maternal and child health is also urgently needed. The latest data reported that U5MR in 2007 (IDHS 2007) was 44 per 1000 live births.
Indonesia started implementation of WHO/UNICEF IMCI strategy in 1996. First training courses started in 1997 and first follow up visits have been conducted in 1998. IMCI is well adopted national strategy to improve child health in the country.
In 2010 Indonesian team prepared local version of IMCI ICATT-based materials in Bahasa Indonesia. This version was used in 2010 to conduct Distance Learning training in two pilot provinces. See the latest information on the News page.